High-Risk Plaque Detected on Coronary CT Angiography Predicts Acute Coronary Syndromes Independent of Significant Stenosis in Acute Chest Pain: Results From the ROMICAT-II Trial

http://www.thepreparedminds.com/archives/7659

SB Puchner, Liu, T Mayrhofer, QA Truong, H Lee, JL Fleg, JT Nagurney, JE Udelson, U Hoffmann, M Ferencik.

OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to determine whether high-risk plaque features, as detected by CTA in the emergency department (ED), may improve diagnostic certainty of ACS independently and incrementally to the presence of significant CAD and clinical risk assessment in patients with acute chest pain but without objective evidence of myocardial ischemia or myocardial infarction (MI). It is not known whether high-risk plaque, as detected by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA), permits improved early diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) independently to the presence of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with acute chest pain.

METHODS: We included patients randomized to the coronary CTA arm of the ROMICAT-II (Rule Out Myocardial Infarction/Ischemia Using Computer-Assisted Tomography II) trial. Readers assessed coronary CTA qualitatively for the presence of nonobstructive CAD (1% to 49% stenosis), significant CAD (≥50% or ≥70% stenosis), and the presence of at least 1 of the high-risk plaque features (positive remodeling, low <30 Hounsfield units plaque, napkin-ring sign, spotty calcium). In logistic regression analysis, we determined the association of high-risk plaque with ACS (MI or unstable angina pectoris) during the index hospitalization and whether this was independent of significant CAD and clinical risk assessment.

RESULTS:  Overall, 37 of 472 patients who underwent coronary CTA with diagnostic image quality (mean age 53.9 ± 8.0 years; 52.8% men) had ACS (7.8%; MI n = 5; unstable angina pectoris n = 32). CAD was present in 262 patients (55.5%; nonobstructive CAD in 217 patients [46.0%] and significant CAD with ≥50% stenosis in 45 patients [9.5%]). High-risk plaques were more frequent in patients with ACS and remained a significant predictor of ACS (odds ratio [OR]: 8.9; 95% CI: 1.8 to 43.3; p = 0.006) after adjustment for ≥50% stenosis (OR: 38.6; 95% CI: 14.2 to 104.7; p < 0.001) and clinical risk assessment (age, sex, number of cardiovascular risk factors). Similar results were observed after adjustment for ≥70% stenosis.

CONCLUSIONS:  In patients presenting to the ED with acute chest pain but negative initial electrocardiogram and troponin, presence of high-risk plaques on coronary CTA increased the likelihood of ACS independent of significant CAD and clinical risk assessment (age, sex, and number of cardiovascular risk factors).

 

Computed tomography for planning and postoperative imaging of transvenous mitral annuloplasty: first experience in an animal model.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25119889

Computed tomography for planning and postoperative imaging of transvenous mitral annuloplasty: first experience in an animal model.

Sündermann SH, Gordic S, Manka R, Cesarovic N, Falk V, Maisano F, Alkadhi H.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2014 Aug 15. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID: 25119889

 

Abstract

To investigate the use of computed tomography (CT) to measure the mitral valve annulus size before implantation of a percutaneous mitral valve annuloplasty device in an animal trial. Seven domestic pigs underwent CT before and after implantation of a Cardioband™ (a percutaneously implantable mitral valve annuloplasty device) with a second-generation 128-section dual-source CT machine. Implantation of the Cardioband™ was performed in a standard fashion according to a protocol. Animals were sacrificed afterwards and the hearts explanted. The Cardioband™ was found to be adequately implanted in all animals, with no anchor dehiscence and no damage of the circumflex artery (CX) or the coronary sinus (CS). The correct length of the band as chosen according to the length of the posterior mitral annulus measured in CT before implantation was confirmed in gross examination in all animals. The device did not result in a metal artifact-related degradation of image quality. The closest distance from the closest anchor to the CX was 2.1 ± 0.7 mm in diastole and 1.6 ± 0.5 mm systole. Mitral annulus distance to the CS was 6.4 ± 1.3 mm in diastole and 7.7 ± 1.1 mm in systole. CT visualization and measurement of the mitral valve annulus dimensions is feasible and can become the imaging method of choice for procedure planning of Cardioband™ implantations or other transcatheter mitral annuloplasty devices.

Ventricular septal rupture complicating acute myocardial infarction: a contemporary review

http://www.thepreparedminds.com/archives/7666

 

Ventricular septal rupture complicating acute myocardial infarction: a contemporary review.

Jones BM, Kapadia SR, Smedira NG, Robich M, Tuzcu EM, Menon V, Krishnaswamy A.

Eur Heart J. 2014 Jun 26. pii: ehu248. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID: 24970335

Ventricular septal rupture (VSR) after acute myocardial infarction is increasingly rare in the percutaneous coronary intervention era but mortality remains high. Prompt diagnosis is key and definitive surgery, though challenging and associated with high mortality, remains the treatment of choice. Alternatively, delaying surgery in stable patients may provide better results. Prolonged medical management is usually futile, but includes afterload reduction and intra-aortic balloon pump placement. Using full mechanical support to delay surgery is an attractive option, but data on success is limited to case reports. Finally, percutaneous VSR closure may be used as a temporizing measure to reduce shunt, or for patients in the sub-acute to chronic period whose comorbidities preclude surgical repair.

Myocardial CT Perfusion Imaging and SPECT for the Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease: A Head-to-Head Comparison from the CORE320 Multicenter Diagnostic Performance Study.

http://www.thepreparedminds.com/archives/7649
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24865312

Myocardial CT Perfusion Imaging and SPECT for the Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease: A Head-to-Head Comparison from the CORE320 Multicenter Diagnostic Performance Study.
George RT, Mehra VC, Chen MY, Kitagawa K, Arbab-Zadeh A, Miller JM, Matheson MB, Vavere AL, Kofoed KF, Rochitte CE, Dewey M, Yaw TS, Niinuma H, Brenner W, Cox C, Clouse ME, Lima JA, Di Carli M.
Radiology. 2014 Aug;272(2):407-16. doi: 10.1148/radiol.14140806. Epub 2014 May 26.
PMID: 24865312

Purpose To compare the diagnostic performance of myocardial computed tomographic (CT) perfusion imaging and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of anatomically significant coronary artery disease (CAD) as depicted at invasive coronary angiography.
Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Sixteen centers enrolled 381 patients from November 2009 to July 2011. Patients underwent rest and adenosine stress CT perfusion imaging and rest and either exercise or pharmacologic stress SPECT before and within 60 days of coronary angiography. Images from CT perfusion imaging, SPECT, and coronary angiography were interpreted at blinded, independent core laboratories. The primary diagnostic parameter was the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az). Sensitivity and specificity were calculated with use of prespecified cutoffs. The reference standard was a stenosis of at least 50% at coronary angiography as determined with quantitative methods.
Results CAD was diagnosed in 229 of the 381 patients (60%). The per-patient sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of CAD (stenosis ≥50%) were 88% (202 of 229 patients) and 55% (83 of 152 patients), respectively, for CT perfusion imaging and 62% (143 of 229 patients) and 67% (102 of 152 patients) for SPECT, with Az values of 0.78 (95% confidence interval: 0.74, 0.82) and 0.69 (95% confidence interval: 0.64, 0.74) (P = .001). The sensitivity of CT perfusion imaging for single- and multivessel CAD was higher than that of SPECT, with sensitivities for left main, three-vessel, two-vessel, and one-vessel disease of 92%, 92%, 89%, and 83%, respectively, for CT perfusion imaging and 75%, 79%, 68%, and 41%, respectively, for SPECT.
Conclusion The overall performance of myocardial CT perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of anatomic CAD (stenosis ≥50%), as demonstrated with the Az, was higher than that of SPECT and was driven in part by the higher sensitivity for left main and multivessel disease. © RSNA, 2014.